fredag 21 september 2007


Scotland: Royal Authoritarian(XRoyalism?) – Royal Hierarchial/*Hierarchial*/Protectoritarian
Ethiopia: Regency:*Authoritarian* -- Revolutionary

Japan: *Authoritarian* -- Sub-Revolutionary


Ethiopia: Revolutionary -- *Royal Hierarchial*


Hungary: Royal Executivian -- XRoyalism


Andorra: French rule-Spanish rule:Representativian – French rule-Urgel rule
Ethiopia: *Royal Hierarchial* -- Interim


Korea: (*Royal Feudalism*) -- *Royal Feudalism*

Ethiopia: Interim -- *Royal Hierarchial*


Bermuda: -- British rule


France: Royal Hierarchial -- *Semi-Absolutism*/Royal Feudalism


Wallachia: §*Royal Authoritarian -- § Royal Absolutism?
XRoyalism#/Royalism# -- Royalism(#)


France: *Semi-Absolutism*/Royal Feudalism –
France: -- *Semi-Absolutism*


Hungary: XRoyalism – Royal Authoritarian
Japan: Sub-Revolutionary --


Finland: §*Hierarchial* -- §*Hierarchial (year?)
Sweden: Royalism(#) – XRoyalism(#)
Argentina: Spanish rule:Protectoritarian – Spanish rule:Protectoritarian *


Netherlands: XRoyalism – Royal Executivian


Portugal: Royal Hierarchial – (Royal Absolutism)/Royal Hierarchial
Belgium: (§*Royal Authoritarian*)/§*Royal Feudalism* -- §*Royal Hierarchial*/§*Royal Feudalism*


Korea: *Royal Feudalism* -- Revolutionary

Korea: Revolutionary -- *Royal Feudalism*


Korea: *Royal Feudalism* -- Revolutionary

Korea: Revolutionary -- *Royal Feudalism*


Scotland: – Royal Hierarchial/*Hierarchial*/Protectoritarian – Royal Absolutism


France: *Semi-Absolutism* -- *Royal Hierarchial*
France: *Royal Hierarchial* -- *Semi-Absolutism*/*Royal Absolutism*
Denmark: Royal Executivian –


Barbados: -- British rule
Dominica: -- British rule


Denmark: -- Royal Executivian


Georgia: Kartli Kingdom – Kartli-Kakheti


Sweden: XRoyalism(#) – Interim
Bavaria: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Authoritarian


Sweden: Interim -- *Authoritarian*


Belgium:§*Royal Hierarchial*/§*Royal Feudalism* -- §*Royal Hierarchial*/Protectoritarian


Mauritius: Dutch rule – Dutch rule*:


Scotland: Royal Absolutism – Royal Hierarchial/Royal Authoritarian
Barbados: British rule – British rule:Representativian


Portugal: (Royal Absolutism)/Royal Hierarchial – Royal Hierarchial


France: *Semi-Absolutism*/*Royal Absolutism* -- Royal Absolutism
Scotland: Royal Hierarchial/Royal Authoritarian – (*Authoritarian)


France: Royal Absolutism -- *Royal Absolutism*


Mauritania: Berber rule, Yemen rule
Sweden: *Authoritarian* -- Royal Authoritarian
China: Royal Absolutism? – Revolutionary – Royal Absolutism??


Bahamas: -- British rule


Brandenburg: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Hierarchial
Denmark: *Royal Authoritarian* -- *Royal Feudalism*/*xrOYAL Parliamentarian*
Austria: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism
Piedmont-Savoy: -- Royal Absolutism


England: -- Authoritarian
Ireland: -- Royal Absolutism/Protectoritarian
Scotland: (*Authoritarian) -- *Authoritarian/**Authoritarian**


Finland: -- §*Authoritarian
Norway: Royal Feudalism – Royal Authoritarian


Oman: Portuguese rule –
Netherlands: Royal Executivian -- Interim
Scotland: *Authoritarian/**Authoritarian** -- *Authoritarian/*Hierarchial


Ireland: Royal Absolutism/Protectoritarian -- §Absolutism/Protectoritarian
Netherlands: Interim – Presidential?


Scotland: *Authoritarian/*Hierarchial – Authoritarian/(§*Hierarchial*)


France: *Royal Absolutism* -- *Semi-Absolutism*/*Royal Absolutism*
England: Authoritarian -- Totalitarian
Scotland: Authoritarian /(§*Hierarchial*) -- Totalitarian


Ireland: §Absolutism/Protectoritarian -- #Totalitarian# (Representativian)
Sweden: Royal Authoritarian – Contra-Executivian/*Semi-Authoritarian/Semi-Authoritarian ??


Jamaica: Spanish rule – British rule


England: Totalitarian -- Authoritarian
Ireland: #Totalitarian# (Representativian) -- #Authoritarian# (Representativian)


Scotland: Totalitarian -- *Authoritarian
Ireland: #Authoritarian# (Representativian) – XRoyalism/XRepresentativian
Denmark: *Royal Feudalism* -- Royal Hierarchial (1661?)
England: Authoritarian – Interim
England: Interim -- XRoyalism
Norway: Royal Authoritarian – Royal Absolutism (year?)
Sweden: Contra-Executivian/*Semi-Authoritarian/Semi-Authoritarian -- *XRoyal Parliamentarian*


France: *Semi-Absolutism*/*Royal Absolutism* -- Royal Absolutism


Barbados: British rule – Bitish rule*


Denmark: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism


Iran: *Royal Hierarchial*/Royal Absolutism -- *Royal Authoritarian*


Bavaria: Royal Hierarchial -- Royal Absolutism


Jamaica: British rule – British rule*


England: XRoyalism – Royal Absolutism
Algeria: Ottoman rule – Ottoman rule: Semi-Autonomy-Dey system


Estonia: Swedish rule – Swedish rule: Royal Absolutism/*Royal Hierarchial*
Netherlands: Presidential? -- XRoyalism

England: Royal Absolutism – Xroyalism


England: XRoyalism – Royal Absolutism


England: Royal Absolutism – Xroyalism


England: XRoyalism – Royal Hierarchial
Sweden: *XRoyal Parliamentarian* -- Royal Executivian/Royal Hierarchial


Finland: *Authoritarian -- *Hierarchial
Sweden: Royal Hierarchial/Royal Executivian – Royal Absolutism
Burundi: -- Kingdom established


England: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism


Ethiopia: *Royal Hierarchial* -- *Authoritarian*/*Hierarchial*


Bermuda: British rule – British rule(colony)


England: Royal Absolutism – XRoyalism
England: XRoyalism – Royal Absolutism
Scotland: *Authoritarian -- **Authoritarian


England: Royal Absolutism – Uni-Revolutinary/Interim
England: Uni-Revolutionary/Interim -- Royalism


Ethiopia: *Authoritarian*/*Hierarchial* -- *Royal Hierarchial*/*Royal Authoritarian*


Wallachia: §Royal Absolutism? – Protectoritarian
Württemberg: XRoyalism – Royal Hierarchial
Zansibar: Portuguese rule --
Portugal: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism
Ireland: XRoyalism/XRepresentativian – Royal Executivian


Hungary: Royal Authoritarian -- XRoyalism


Tunisia: Ottoman rule – Ottoman rule:Autonomy
Japan: -- *Authoritarian*
Maldives: -- Dutch rule
Maldives: Dutch rule – British rule
Honduras: Spanish rule – Spanish rule,British rule
Spain: Royal Hierarchial – Royal Absolutism
Cameroon: -- Dutch rule
Belize: -- Spanish rule

Possible list Scotland

-1603 XRoyalism
1649-1651 Royal
1651-1657 §Absolutism
1657-1660 #Authoritarian#
1660-1661 Interim
1661-1663 XRoyalism
1663-1669 Royal Executivian
1669-1674 XRoyalism
1674-1681 Royal Absolutism
1681-1686 XRoyalism
1686-1689 Royal Executivian
1689-1707 Royalism
1707 Inc to United Kingdom

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th Century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar.
The 17th Century falls into the Early Modern period of Europe and was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement and the beginning of modern science and philosophy, including the contributions of Galileo Galilei, René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, Isaac Newton; Europe was torn by warfare throughout the century, by the Thirty Years' War, the Great Turkish War and the English Civil War among others, while European colonization of the Americas began in earnest.

Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu is the founder of Japan's last shogunate, which lasted well into the 19th century.
In the east, the 17th Century saw the flowering of the Ottoman and Mughal empires, the beginning of the Edo period in feudal Japan, and the violent transition from the Ming to the Qing Dynasty in China.
1 Events
1.1 1600s
1.2 1610s
1.3 1620s
1.4 1640s
1.5 1650s
1.6 1660s
1.7 1670s
1.8 1680s
1.9 1690s
2 Significant people
3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions
4 References
5 Decades and years

[edit] Events

[edit] 1600s

Matteo Ricci and Xu Guangqi in the Chinese published version of Euclid's Elements.
1600- Michael the Brave became for less than 6 months the first ruler of all three Romanian provinces: Walachia, Transylvania and Moldavia; British East India Company was chartered; Charles I of England born to James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark.
1601: The Elizabethan Poor Law appoints HI parishes as administrators of poverty relief; Earl of Essex executed on a count of treason; Battle of Kinsale, one of the most important battles in Irish history, fought.
1602: Dutch East India Company founded. Its success contributes to the Dutch Golden Age.
1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England; Tokugawa Ieyasu seizes control of Japan and establishes the Shogunate which lasts until 1868.
1603-23: After modernizing his army, Abbas I expands Persia by capturing territory from the Ottomans and the Portuguese.
1604: James I meets the Puritans at the Hampton Court Conference, but eventually demands compliance with all Thirty-Nine Articles, and bans Jesuits.
1605: Gunpowder Plot failed in England.
1607: The London Company establishes the Jamestown Settlement in North America, precipitating the British colonization of the Americas.
1607: For the first time, Euclid's Elements (幾何原本) is translated into Chinese by the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci and the Chinese mathematician Xu Guangqi (徐光启).
1608: Quebec City founded by Samuel de Champlain in New France (present-day Canada).
1609: Maximilian of Bavaria establishes the Catholic League.

[edit] 1610s
1611: King James Bible published.
1611: English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster.
1612: Moscow freed from Polish invaders.
1612: Chilean Jesuit missionaries murdered by Indians.
1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov which rules until 1917.
1614: James I of England dissolves the Addled Parliament for failing to pass legislation or new taxes.
1614: Cardinal Richelieu dissolves the States-General, thereby concentrating power in the hands of Louis XIII.
1615: The Mughal Empire grants extensive trading rights to the British East India Company.
1616: Dirk Hartog reaches western Australia and leaves behind the Hartog Plate.
1616: William Shakespeare dies. Supposedly Shakespeare died on his birthday, if the tradition that he was born on April 23 is correct.
1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitatesCULOO the Thirty Years' War which devastates Central Europe in the years 1618-48. Starting from a dispute over Protestant churches on Catholic land, the Protestant churches are torched or closed, leading to a protest in Prague. In the Second Defenestration of Prague two Catholic imperial governors are thrown out of the Bohemian Chancellery window, whereafter successive regions enter the dispute for or against Emperor Matthias's sovereignty.
1618: The Manchus start invading China. Their conquest eventually topples the Ming Dynasty.
1618: Sir Walter Raleigh beheaded for attack on Spanish possession Trinidad.
1618: English colonists depart in the Gift of God for the Jamestown Settlement, Virginia.
1618: The Synod of Dort addresses five Protestant controversies.
1619: British North American colonies introduce slavery in expanding plantations.
1619: Spain starts financing Emperor Ferdinand II's military exploits.
1619: Bohemian Protestants reject Emperor Ferdinand II as future sovereign and appoint Frederick V instead.

[edit] 1620s

Apollo and Daphne (1622-1625), by Gian Lorenzo Bernini is considered one of the masterpieces of the century.
1620: Emperor Ferdinand II defeats the Bohemian rebels in the Battle of White Mountain.
1620: The Puritan Pilgrims arrive in the Mayflower at Plymouth Rock, Cape Cod.
1624-42: As chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu centralizes power in France.
1625: New Amsterdam founded by the Dutch West India Company in North America.
1626: St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican completed.
1627: Cardinal Richelieu lays siege to Protestant La Rochelle which eventually capitulates.
1629: Cardinal Richelieu allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the Thirty Years' War to counter Ferdinand II's expansion.

[edit] 1640s
1640: King Charles was compelled to summon Parliament due to the revolt of the Scots.
1640-68: The Portuguese Restoration War led to the end of the Iberian Union.
1640: Torture is outlawed in England.
1641: The Tokugawa Shogunate institutes Sakoku- foreigners are expelled and no one is allowed to enter or leave Japan.
1642: Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman achieves the first recorded European sighting of New Zealand.
1642-49: Civil War in England; Charles I is beheaded by Cromwell
1644: The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming Dynasty. The subsequent Qing Dynasty rules until 1912.
1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War and marks the ends of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers.
1648-53: Fronde civil war in France.
1648-67: The Deluge wars leave Poland in ruins.
1648-69: The Ottoman Empire captures Crete from the Venetians after the Siege of Candia.

[edit] 1650s
1652: Cape Town founded by the Dutch East India Company in South Africa.
1652: Anglo-Dutch Wars begin.
1655-61: The Northern Wars cement Sweden's rise as a Great Power.
1648: After his father Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal, his son Aurangzeb deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire.

[edit] 1660s
1660: The Commonwealth of England ends and the monarchy is brought back during the English Restoration.
1660: Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge founded.
1661: The reign of the Kangxi Emperor of China begins.
1662: Koxinga captures Taiwan from the Dutch and founds the Kingdom of Tungning which rules until 1683.
1662: Jacques Aymar-Vernay, who later reintroduced Dowsing into popular use in Europe, is born.
1663: France takes full political and military control over its colonial possessions in New France. Hookes microspoce discovers cells
1664: British troops capture New Amsterdam and rename it New York.
1665: Portugal defeats the Kongo Empire.
1666: The Great Fire of London.
1667-99: The Great Turkish War halts the Ottoman Empire's expansion into Europe.

[edit] 1670s
1670: The Hudson's Bay Company is founded in Canada.
1672-78: Franco-Dutch War
1674: Maratha Empire founded in India by Shivaji.
1676: Russia and the Ottoman Empire commence the Russo-Turkish Wars.

[edit] 1680s
1682: Peter the Great becomes joint ruler of Russia (sole tsar in 1696).
1682: La Salle explores the length of the Mississippi River and claims Louisiana for France.
1683: China conquers the Kingdom of Tungning and annexes Taiwan.
1685: Edict of Fontainebleau outlaws Protestantism in France. King Charles II dies
1687: Isaac Newton publishes Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
1688-89: After the Glorious Revolution, England becomes a constitutional monarchy and the Dutch Republic goes into decline.
1688-97: The Grand Alliance sought to stop French expansion during the Nine Years War.
1689: The Treaty of Nerchinsk established a border between Russia and China.

[edit] 1690s
1692: Salem witch trials in Massachusetts.

[edit] Significant people
Elizabeth I of England (1533 - 1603)
Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543 - 1616)
Francis Bacon, English philosopher and politician (1561-1626)
William Shakespeare, English author and poet (1564 - 1616)
Galileo Galilei, Italian natural philosopher (1564 - 1642)
James I of England (1566 - 1625)
Seathrún Céitinn, Irish historian (ca. 1569 - ca. 1644)
Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571 - 1630)
John Donne, English metaphysical poet (1572 - 1631)
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish author (1574 - 1616)
William Harvey, medical doctor (15781657)
Gabriel Bethlen, Hungarian prince of Transylvania (1580-1629)
Albrecht von Wallenstein, Catholic German general in the Thirty Years' War (1583 - 1634)
Miyamoto Musashi, famous warrior in Japan, author of 'The Book of Five Rings,' a treatise on strategy and martial combat (1584 - 1645)
Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer of Renaissance and Baroque music, and possibly the first opera ever (1567 - 1643)
Cardinal Richelieu, French cardinal, duke, and politician (1585 - 1642)
Xu Xiake, Chinese geographer (1587-1641)
Thomas Hobbes, English philosopher and mathematician (1588 - 1679)
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden (1594-1632)
René Descartes, French philosopher and mathematician (1596 - 1650)
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Italian artist (1598 - 1680)
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1599 - 1658)
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, Spanish painter (1599-1660)
Charles I of England (1600 - 1649)
Sant Tukaram, Hindu saint (1600 - 1650)
Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Spanish dramatist (1600 - 1681)
Pierre de Fermat, French lawyer and mathematician 16011665
Anne of Austria, Queen consort and regent of France (1601 - 1666)
Cardinal Mazarin, French cardinal and politician of Italian origin (1602 - 1661)
Abel Janszoon Tasman, Dutch seafarer and explorer (1603 - 1659)
Sir Thomas Browne, English author, philosopher and scientist (1605-1682)
Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch painter (1606 - 1669)
Pierre Corneille, French dramatist (1606 - 1684)
Song Yingxing, Chinese encyclopedist (1587-1666)
Michiel de Ruyter, Dutch admiral (1607 - 1676)
John Milton, English author and poet (1608 - 1674)
Samarth Ramdas, Hindu saint (1608 - 1681)
Dubhaltach MacFhirbhisigh, Irish historian and genealogist (d.1671)
André Le Nôtre, French landscape architect (1613 - 1700)
Andreas Gryphius, German poet and dramatist (1616 - 1664)
Guru Teg Bahadur, 9th Sikh Guru (1621 - 1675)
Jean de La Fontaine, French poet (1621 - 1695)
Molière, French dramatist, actor, director (1622 - 1673)
Blaise Pascal, French theologian, mathematician and physicist (1623 - 1662)
Queen Christina of Sweden, high profile Catholic convert, matron of arts (1626 - 1689)
Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1626 - 1712)
Jiang Tingxi, Chinese painter, calligrapher, encyclopedist, foreign delegate to Japan (1669 - 1732)
Christiaan Huygens, Dutch mathematician, physicist and astronomer (1629 - 1695)
Jan III Sobieski, King of Poland (1629 - 1696)
Shivaji Bhonsle, Hindu king, 1st Maratha ruler, established Hindavi Swaraj (1630-1680)
Charles II of England (1630 - 1685)
John Dryden, English poet, literary critic, translator, and playwright (1631 - 1700)
Johannes Vermeer, Dutch Painter (1632 - 1675)
Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (1632 - 1677)
Jean-Baptiste Lully, Italian-born French composer (1632 - 1687)
John Locke, English philosopher (1632 - 1704)
James II of England (1633 - 1701)
Samuel Pepys, English civil servant and diarist (1633 - 1703)
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon, second wife of Louis XIV (1635 - 1719)
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux, French poet and critic (1636 - 1711)
Louis XIV, King of France (1638 - 1715)
Jean Racine, French dramatist (1639 - 1699)
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640 - 1705)
Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan, lover of Louis XIV (1641 - 1707)
Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician (1642 - 1727)
Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher and mathematician (1646 - 1716)
John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet (1647 - 1680)
William III of England (1650 - 1702)
Imre Thököly, prince of Transylvania, leader of the anti-Habsburg uprising in Hungary (1657 - 1705)
Henry Purcell, English composer (1659 - 1695)
Mary II of England (1662 - 1694)
Peter the Great, Russian tsar (1672 - 1725)
Abraham Darby I, English Ironmaster, Introduced the first coke-consuming blast furnace (16781717)
Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer of genius(1685-1750)

[edit] Inventions, discoveries, introductions
List of 17th century inventions
Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.
Banknotes reintroduced in Europe.
Ice cream
Tea and coffee become popular in Europe.
Central Banking in France and modern Finance by Scottish economist John Law
1604: Supernova SN 1604 is observed in the Milky Way
1605: Johannes Kepler starts investigating elliptical orbits of planets
1608: Hans Lippershey constructs a refracting telescope, the first for which sufficient evidence exists
1609: Johann Carolas of Germany publishes the 'Relation', the first newspaper
1610: The Orion Nebula is identified by Nicolas de Peiresc of France
1610: Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius observe Jupiter's Galilean moons
1611: King James Bible or 'Authorized Version' first published
c. 1612: The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII of France by gunsmith Marin de Bourgeoys
1614: John Napier introduces the logarithm to simplify calculations
1620: Cornelius Drebbei, funded by James I of England, builds the first 'submarine' made of wood and greased leather
1623: The first English dictonary, 'English Dictionarie' is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions
1628: William Harvey publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the circulatory system
1637: Dutch Bible published
1637: Teatro San Cassiano, the first public opera house, opened in Venice
1637: Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995
1637: Although Chinese naval mines were earlier described in the 14th century Huolongjing, the Tian Gong Kai Wu book of Ming Dynasty scholar Song Yingxing describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism.
1642: Blaise Pascal builds an early mechanical calculator for addition and subtraction
1642: Mezzotint engraving introduces grey tones to printed images
1643: Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invents the mercury barometer
1645: Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage
1651: Giovanni Riccioli renames the Lunar mare
1656: Christiaan Huygens describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn
1657: Christiaan Huygens develops the first functional pendulum clock based on the learnings of Galileo Galilei
1659: Christiaan Huygens first to observe surface details of Mars
1663: The first reflecting telescope is built by James Gregory based on suggestions of Italian astronomer Niccolo Zucchi
c. 1670: Monk Dom Perignon discovers Champagne in France
1676: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovers Bacteria
1676: First measurement of the speed of light
1679: Binary system developed by Gottfried Leibnitz, possibly influenced by Shao Yong
1684: Calculus independently developed by both Gottfried Leibnitz and Sir Issac Newton and used to formulate classical mechanics

[edit] References